The sixteenth president of the United States, the first Republican president, head of reunification after the Civil War and the liberator of slaves. And ‘so that, even today, is remembered as the most popular and beloved statesman in US history.
In particular, the elevation in the American secular Pantheon, took place for the ultimate abolition of slavery by the federal government, a factor which is commonly taken as the main cause of the Civil War. As you know, this conflict was between the Northern states, abolitionists, and the South (called the Confederate States) who intended to maintain slavery. This is the story we know.
As in all great myths, however, there is a dark side, we can find drawing a comparison between what was the United States in the aftermath of civil war and what they have been for the last century and the current one. If you assume that a society evolves and better over time, or it is assumed that this is not true for Uncle Sam, or what is handed down on the Lincoln government is false or at least incomplete. This is because, despite the release of African Americans, racial segregation continued for over a century, even many years after the Nuremberg trials, in which the United States is autonominarono judges and moralists of the world. Suffice to say that, between the end of the Civil War and the assassination of the Rev.. Martin Luther King, passed at least 103 years. And you are not pointing the finger on isolated xenophobic attacks carried out by more or less organized groups, but on the racial policies of the government itself. So, unless you admit American cultural involution, it is reasonable to assume that the Civil War was not fought to free the slaves, but for other reasons, as in all US wars, there contains a clear economic matrix. In fact, the question that never finds an answer is: “How come the Northerners had gone to die to free the slaves, and then leave them to their fate by continuing to discriminate against them and relegate them to menial and low-paying jobs, not so much different from the house of bondage? “. Apparently, it is a huge contradiction.
To understand the reasons that led a country to split into two warring parties together, you can see the map of USA: as you note, the Southern states are bounded by almost geometric boundaries (unlike those of the North, which follow the natural boundaries), which are derived from the ancient estates of grasslands, plots of land where slaves were employed. Although the Industrial Revolution, which also swept the New World, at the dawn of the war the United States remained a predominantly agricultural country, with a condition much more advantageous for the north than for southern states, whose territories were suited for agriculture. This disparity was what convinced the government to seek solutions to even most of the economy. To accomplish this goal was to abolish slavery. And from this came the decision of the Southern States to create an independent federation, with its capital in Richmond, Virginia. This war was not so moral, but a kind of class war between the landed aristocracy of the south and the northern bourgeoisie, a contrast that had roots in the War of Independence, strongly supported by the northern colonies and opposed by those in the south, more loyal to the British Crown.
In a letter to Horace Greeley, Lincoln wrote:
As to the policy I “seem to be pursuing” as you say, I have not meant to leave any one in doubt.
I would save the Union. I would save it the shortest way under the Constitution. The sooner the national authority can be restored; the nearer the Union will be “the Union as it was.” If there be those who would not save the Union, unless they could at the same time save slavery, I do not agree with them. If there be those who would not save the Union unless they could at the same time destroy slavery, I do not agree with them. My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union. I shall do less whenever I shall believe what I am doing hurts the cause, and I shall do more whenever I shall believe doing more will help the cause. I shall try to correct errors when shown to be errors; and I shall adopt new views so fast as they shall appear to be true views.
I have here stated my purpose according to my view of official duty; and I intend no modification of my oft-expressed personal wish that all men every where could be free.
Slavery, like all American conflicts, was the casus belli , the justification to show to the world to get out of it clean, and this was really the case that inaugurated this practice to hide the real intentions behind a war. This is because unlike what brings the declaration of independence, meaning that “All men are created equal,” the facts prove exactly the opposite.