Once upon a time in the history of Europe which now seems forgotten. And not only to the peoples of Europe, but also to the so-called elites, from their ivory towers of our new civilization, who have formed new Pharisees of the coming years. There was once the great history of Europe, and since history is a teacher of life, to forget history also means forgetting the future, as well as a part of ourselves.
Europe, culture and identity entities even before geographical, born in remote centuries, forged by the Greek and Roman thought and the classical age that by creating the idea of a Mediterranean empire founded on the concept, more and more cultural than legal, the civitas , created first a thought pattern.
But it is with Christianity, and with Charlemagne, that Europe begins taking shape in its essential features. The Res Publica Chsritiana , jewel button and the heart of Christianity, was standing on a socio-legal model extremely complex, whose two pillars were the two universalistic institutions of the Papacy and the Empire. In this context, the notion of territorial sovereignty was essentially alien to the legal doctrine and politics of the time. A plurality of powers and bodies, with distinct skills and sometimes intertwined, inerivano in various capacities on individual subjects, thus creating an organic and complex legal system, which, however, was its unifying cultural element in belonging to the same philosophical and epistemic model, in the same horizon of meaning, in the same socio-cultural and religious matrix: Christianity.
A system characterized by two universal scope institutions, with different skills, and at the same time host numerous intermediate bodies and numerous iura own , such as canon, or mercantile, that of corporations and that of the common, could be maintained in its cohesion from the top belonging to a common social and cultural vision , namely that of the Western world as part of the larger people of God, the cultural community and spiritual expression of an identity that, in his sense of belonging, was able to find a consistent location to the special diversity of communities and peoples. In a word, Europe.
The religious element, in this case, is not intended simply as an element creed, but rather as a cultural horizon and meaning which, thanks to the development of Christian thought and his reworking of Roman thought, is able to inform the construction social and legal Institutions. And precisely because of higher socio memberships – a shared cultural model that was able to cross the centuries, overcoming local conflicts up to project an image of virtually unified Europe. And despite local conflicts, episodes such as the Battle of Lepanto, which saw the union of rival groups including the Venetians and Genoese, Spaniards and Romans, Imperial and Papal, show that Europe had no need to find its expression in a form of political union, being sufficient its cultural and spiritual dimension, as a direct expression of Western and Christian communities.
The medieval unity of the Res Publica Christiana , however, was destined to find its own end with the loss of this cultural unity. The Protestant Reformation, in fact, cracked and then destroyed the homogenous substrate that was the foundation and the basis of organic society of the Middle Ages, introducing for the first time a real element of division between the kingdoms and potentates universal Christian Empire. In response, he was saying, even through the theory of Hobbes and after the Peace of Westphalia, the principle cuius regio eius religio , in order to pacify the society torn apart by wars of religion, dividing it into independent states, each with its own cultural identity and religious. The sovereign state, the modern state thus was born.
The paradigm of the sovereign state, then with a national connotation, informed the international political life for centuries, from the middle of the seventeenth century until today. And just today, because of the phenomena of globalization and the emergence of forms of internationalization of the policy as the emergence of international organizations that erode the sovereignty of States, the principle seems to be questioned.
It seems to be moving towards a new fragmentation of the state communities, to arrive, perhaps, a new broader vision of Europe, as in medieval society. However, what is to be observed, unlike the Res Publica Christiana today’s Europe seems to have its own homogeneous socio-cultural vision can overcome the concept of territorial integrity and national sovereignty. It does not seem to have a consistent and shared horizon of meaning that can eliminate the need for state paradigm. If the Middle Ages, because of its unity of vision founded the Christian element, needed no boundaries and borders, States and sovereignty, understood in the modern sense, today’s Europe seems more than ever to have lost this common vision.
With the systematic rejection of any element of identity and common cultural, and rejection of Christian roots and with the emergence of forces forms of multiculturalism which necessarily erode the shared European cultural heritage, especially in the presence of religious communities expansive and intrusive in the western social life , Europe seems determined to destroy the very foundation that, in distant centuries, had created his unit. Exceeded the state and national paradigm in these conditions, that is, without a foundational cultural vision like Christianity, would be unthinkable in when abandonment of a model does not follow the replacement of another model, as happened in Westphalia, but nothing.
Fortress Europe is Europe, like it or not, but Europe can not be Europe without fortresses, and especially not without a fundamental element of its very being society, civilization, community. And if you do not erase centuries of history with the Treaties, then Europe should be seriously conducted to rethink the role to be given to its roots, to his vision, his religious mission, without which not only will not be possible to overcome the concept of state – nation, but will not even possible to imagine a community.