Anna Bono, (pictured), Professor of History and Institutions of Africa at the University of Turin.
Marco Dozio, says that anyone who arrives or is ferried to our shores, coming mainly sub-Saharan Africa, for the vast majority of cases is not a refugee .
And even a poor fleeing from hunger is a young male, often middle-class, that does not run away from war or persecution. “Most of those who leave sub-Saharan Africa to Europe does not escape either from war or extreme poverty” .
Professor, tell us about the amount of immigrants arriving in Italy who are refugees.
“The figures show that since the beginning of the year the number of people who have applied for political asylum, and who have obtained a positive response, is settled at about 4%. It means that everyone else does not fall within the parameters laid down by the Geneva Convention, and are not people who have left their country under the threat of losing freedom or life: people are not persecuted. “
They tell us that those who do not run away from the war, however, escape from hunger.
“The illegal emigration huge cost contradict this common thesis. Now it is known that those who want to come to Europe must put together 4 thousand, 5 thousand or 10 thousand dollars to be able to support an organization that provides employment abroad traffickers. Figures indeed very high especially when compared to the average income of the countries of origin. Who usually gets belong to the middle or lower middle class, however, for most it is not indigent. There are those who save, who borrows money from relatives, who pays in installments, those selling a herd, but the money is there, the traffickers want to be paid in cash. It is people who have a disposable income. Of course there is the disappointment of living in countries where mainly advance the recommended: the boost can come from there also, by working disappointment, as happens for travelers from Italy. “
Why those who are possibly involved in a conflict should make sub-Saharan Africa en route to Europe?
“In fact this does not happen. African refugees are millions and millions, but almost all of those who obtain asylum leaves the continent. The refugees are more than 60 million since 2015, of which 41 million are internal refugees, displaced persons. When you live in a state of conflict or danger, there is only away the bare minimum to get to safety, thinking he can do back at home. Most people move away remain within national borders, while another portion of people beyond the borders to be housed in UNHCR camps even for a long time, as in the case of Somalia. Although the Somali diaspora is one of the largest in the world, due to decades of instability and terrorism of Al Shaabab, only part of the refugees have fled the country: the majority has crossed national borders sheltering in neighboring Kenya ».
What is the situation in countries of origin?
“Many immigrants arrive for example from a country like Senegal that is not at war, does not live serious conflicts and problems as all African countries, with few exceptions, it is going through a positive period from an economic point of view. For years, nearly all of Africa has a steady and in some cases substantial growth in gross domestic product. The problem is that this growth does not translate into real economic or human development, partly because of the endemic corruption and bad governance. “
Why newscasts, large print and a large part of politics insist mistakenly speak of “landings of refugees or refugees”?
“Mass media, politicians, anyone who speaks immigration uses emigrant, refugee or refugee as if they were synonyms. But obviously they are not. Partly this is the result of an inadvertent confusion.In part, however, this is a deliberate error, because there is a tendency to say that anyone leaving their country has a form of discomfort and thus has the right to be housed. This approach translates into what we see: hundreds of thousands of people marching to get to Europe. Many of whom are not needy and for the most part, about 80%, are young men aged 35 years. Then there is a growing slice of unaccompanied children, half of whom do not know what happened to my face. There is much talk of welcome and then leave 5 thousand children disappear into thin air. “
The exodus is favored by a kind of propaganda?
“In the countries of sub-Saharan Africa there are advertisements that incite to go to Italy, explaining that everything here is free. And indeed it is. I imagine the phone calls these boys to their friends, which confirms that everything is actually assured them free. “
How do you see the issue in perspective?
“If we continue to pick them up at a short distance from the African coast, as illustrated a satirical cartoon of Krancic, (below), the situation will only get worse. In Greece not landed hardly anyone since it was signed an agreement with Turkey. If anyone thinking of coming to Italy has the certainty of being sent back, not having the characteristics for asylum, eventually desists. Lack the political will.That there is a significant gap between the living conditions of Africa, South America or parts of Asia than in the West is evident. But we have 4 million and 600 thousand absolute poor and 40% of young people out of work, numbers to be taken into account. “
Many people wonder why migrants do not reach the European states on the plane as it costs less.Well, to be able to apply for political asylum or humanitarian asylum in a European country you have to be physically present on the territory of this state. This means that you can not forward a request for asylum in a European country by an embassy of this country in a third country. There is even a chance to have a temporary permit to arrive in the country of their choice in order to seek asylum.
The only way to reach a European country that promises to guarantee rights and assistance, as did Sweden first in 2013, is to make use of illegal and dangerous means and to entrust oneself and one’s family to traffickers.
This, for those who are in Egypt and Libya and for the majority of Syrians, means arriving by sea.Traffickers in human beings as one and only interest in financial gain and then try to gain as much as possible up to the limit cramming hundreds of people in boats in poor condition. Those arriving by sea in Europe and on the Italian coast, risking their lives, not nor does it because it is convenient or to hide from the authorities, it is because the European immigration laws do not allow him to do otherwise.
In Trentino the immigration cost to the community is very high and the management does not provide a true acceptance and integration plan. For every immigrant the autonomous province of Trento has 35 Euros per day, plus 2.5 euro in cash for each asylum seeker. Besides the benefits for migrants on our territory are very important and range from free transport, visits and all medicines free of charge, the card for phone cards and grocery shopping.
It is plausible to think that for every asylum seeker of the autonomous province of Trento spend over € 1,500 each month , this for about 24 months, that is the time to decide whether it will be granted refugee status to the migrant. Time is often doubled since almost all asylum seekers who are not recognized refugee status have an action that is taken into consideration after a further 24 months in the meantime the refugee passes in our country naturally maintained by taxpayers. The application itself is sponsored by the Italian state, so all applicants filing the appeal are entitled to free defense for them, but pays the Italian community.
Besides that to take into serious consideration are the professionals who revolve around the phenomenon, that is, psychologists, mediators, traders, doctors etc etc .. all paid for by the community.
It seems that around the phenomenon of immigration only in Trentino rotate around 3,000 employees. For the renovation of refugee camps by Marco in Rovereto and the former barracks Damiano Church, the Autonomous Province of Trento has spent nearly a million Euros.
To date in Trentino there are nearly 1,500 asylum-seekers, the number set to rise very quickly saw the nearly 3,000 foreigners who land on Lampedusa every day. Unfortunately only a small part will be entitled to the status of refugee.