We all come from Africa. This at least is the dominant theory among paleoanthropologists who try to write the history of the origin of the so-called Homo sapiens , or modern human being. This theory, called Out of Africa , claims that the oldest Homo sapiens is the so-called Kibish Man , whose remains found in southwestern Ethiopia near the Omo River date back to about 200 thousand years ago . From this area, considered the cradle of a unique human origin, the Homo sapiens would have gradually spread out with progressive migrationsuntil you get to live all over the world. Also according to this theory, man as we know him would have arrived in Europe only in the Upper Paleolithic, about 30 thousand years ago, so long after its appearance in sub-Saharan Africa.
The Out of Africa theory
In support of this theory there would then be that of the so-called ” mitochondrial Eve “. By performing a comparison on the mitochondrial DNA of samples belonging to different ethnic groups, the scientists assumed that the DNA sequences evolved from that of a common ancestor . Since the mitochondria – of cellular respiratory organelles with their own DNA – are inherited only by their mother, this assumption leads to the theory that all human beings have a line of female descent derived from a single woman. Exactly, the mitochondrial Eve which, according to the phylogeny, would have lived in south-eastern Africa about 200 thousand years ago.
As obviously happens for questions concerning events of hundreds of thousands of years ago, with often incomplete finds and evolutionary chains that present holes – the famous « missing links » – we always remain in the field of hypotheses . Yet this of the African origin of man seems to have become more of a dogma than a simple theory. Several times the fateful “we all come from Africa” has been used more as a slogan than as a scientific subject. We all come from Africa, so we are all African immigrants, so who are we to stop mass migration from the African continent? And then again, we come from Africa, so somehow we are, or at least we were, all black. Moreover, paradoxically, the fact of thinking that all ethnic groups are an evolution of the black sub-Saharan Africa, which would thus be – logically – the least evolved, is not a thesis that would displease de Gobineau.
But the dogma of African origin by matrilineal descent from a ” Great African Mother ” seems above all to have a strong symbolic value for the fanatical heralds of the politically correct dem , who would like to relegate the European white male and the European patriarchal culture to the margins up to make them disappear, as if a possible temporal primacy of man’s birth in Africa rather than in Europe or the fact that Africans were born before Europeans can actually have a value to weaken European historical and cultural centrality.
The new discoveries
But, beyond the obvious logical flaws in the discourses that derive from this theory, is it really so sure that “we all come from Africa”? Of course, the theory is still the most accredited in academic circles, but it is at least ten years that every discovery in this field seems to demolish the foundations.
In 2006, a research coordinated by the Cenieh of Burgos – to which the department of animal biology and man of wisdom also collaborated – and whose results were published in the prestigious American scientific journal Pnas , came to results that do not agree at all with the Out of Africa . The team of scientists would have collected the morphological data of about 3000 teeth belonging to hominids of the genus Australopithecus and Homo lived in a period ranging from 2 million years to about 10 thousand years ago. From the results it would appear that the population of Europe would have been the fruit not of African migrations,but of a complicated mix of immigration and emigration from Africa, from Asia and from Europe itself. The study would also prove that the genus Homowas also formed in Asia and Europe and not only in Africa and that therefore Homo sapiens would be the fruit of this mix.
In August 2012 the casual discovery, by an 11-year-old child, of the remains of a 45,000-year-old mammoth in the Siberian Gulf of the Yenisej River, in the middle of the Arctic circle, led to another surprising discovery, later disclosed in the January 2016 from the journal Science . The study on fossil bones would in fact show signs of wounds that demonstrate a very advanced hunting organization , as well as signs of slaughtering and fat removal. Which means – besides the fact that the Arctic circle was inhabited by Homo sapiens several tens of thousands of years before migrations came from sub-Saharan South – that those men were also particularly adept at building tools, making hot clothes and setting up shelters to survive harsh climates and inhospitable environments, all characteristics that in those days “Original populations” from the South did not have.
A European origin?
But the discoveries that would have completely demolished the theory of African origin have all come in recent months. Last May an international team of scientists including Jochen Fuss, Nikolai Spassov, David R. Begun, Madelaine Böhme (signatories of the article in the journal of the Plos, the Public Library of Science) would have found fossils of a hominid with very similar teeth to those humans who would have lived between Greece and Bulgaria about 7.2 million years ago . The creature, called Graecopithecus Freybergi , is a direct ancestor of the Homo species and presents large molars and dense enamel just like in men. The discovery shows that the alleged ancestors of Homothey had begun to evolve in Europe already 200 thousand years before this happened in Africa and the research data of the team’s scientists would support the fact that the divergence between chimpanzees and humans took place in the Mediterranean and not in Africa.
In September, another sensational discovery made by the scientist Gerard D. Gierlinski, professor of the Geological Institute of Poland, which also took place in Greece , in the Cretan islet of Trachilos : a series of 5.7 million years old footprints presenting the classic structure of the human foot with five fingers and a heel. In this case it would be a « ominine », that is a subfamily of the hominids that, according to the evolutionary theory, would have been separated by differentiating itself into men and chimpanzees. Until this discovery the oldest known hominin was 4.4 million years old: Ardipithecus ramidus ,whose fossils found in Ethiopia are still among the evidence supporting the Out of Africa theory . But the African ancestor’s footprints have four fingers and a big toe that protrudes outward, like monkeys. The oldest imprint known in human form with five fingers and a heel was instead “only” 3.7 million years old and had been found in Laetoli, Tanzania. The imprint of Trachilos would confirm the results of the study on Grecopithecus teeth : millions of years before those so far considered the ancestors of man began to evolve in Africa, between Crete, Greece and Mediterranean Europe there were already differentiated hominins from the chimpanzees, evolved , bipedal, erect and with human teeth.
A story to rewrite
Finally, last October came what appears to be the final blow to Out of Africa : another tooth from a “hominid primate” found in Germany , in the Rhine valley near the city of Eppelsheim , from the incredible age of 9 , 7 million years. For the experts the tooth would have characteristics very similar to those of the famous Lucy, the australopithecine female found in Ethiopia in 1974 that would have provided a further “proof” for the theory of the African origin of man. The problem is that Lucy has “barely” 3.2 million years and the theory of which she is a testimonial would foresee that humanity would have started to evolve precisely from that stock some 400 thousand years ago, in East Africa, to then land in Europe about 30 thousand years ago. Also according to this theory, beings such as the Graecopithecus and the hominid of the Rhine valley should not have existed outside Africa and above all in Europe if not many millions of years later. History rewritten and Out of Africadefinitively abandoned? Obviously not. As always happens, the international community of scientists is reluctant to retrace its steps, especially when it comes to a “dogma” whose political and political implications we have already discussed. So far, after these discoveries, the official response has always been very cautious, varying from “we must stay calm” to “it could be an isolated case”. The fact is that the isolated cases are beginning to be a bit ‘many and already many scientists and specialized magazines speak of “history of man totally to rewrite”.